What does covid-19 pneumonia cause?

COVID pneumonia is a lung infection caused by SARS CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.It causes fluid and inflammation in the lungs. Worsening respiratory distress is the most common symptom of the progression of COVID-19 to COVID pneumonia. Like other respiratory infections that cause pneumonia, COVID-19 can cause short-term lung damage. In the most severe cases, the damage can last for a long time.

In fact, early data shows that up to a third of patients with COVID pneumonia have evidence of scarring on x-rays or lung tests one year after infection. COVID-19 is mainly limited to the upper and conductive respiratory tracts in approximately 80% of infected patients. However, in almost 20% of patients, the disease progresses to pulmonary gas exchange units and causes hypoxia and opacification of frosted glass (GGO) (1.The underlying cause of severe lung damage can be attributed to the high expression of AEC2 in tissue). Type II epithelial cells in the lungs have been reported to be more sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 infection and that infected cells undergo apoptosis (1).

Since these cells are the main contributors to the secretion of surfactants, the reduction in the level of surfactant in the alveoli following viral destruction of pneumocytes causes The alveoli to collapse, which subsequently leads to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe cases (1). Severe pneumonia due to Covid-19 has posed critical challenges for the medical and research community). Older age, male gender and comorbidities increase the risk of serious illness. Among people hospitalized for COVID-19, between 15 and 30% will develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) associated with COVID-19.Autopsy studies of patients who died from a severe SARS CoV-2 infection reveal the presence of diffuse alveolar damage consistent with ARDS, but with an increased thrombus burden in the pulmonary capillaries.

When used properly, the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) may allow PATIENTS with CARDS to avoid intubation and does not increase the risk of disease transmission. During invasive mechanical ventilation, low tidal volume ventilation and a positive adjustment of final expiratory pressure (PEEP) are recommended to optimize oxygenation. Dexamethasone treatment improves mortality for the treatment of severe and critical COVID-19, while remdesivir may have a modest recovery-time benefit in patients with serious illness, but shows no statistically significant benefit in mortality or other clinical outcomes. COVID-19 survivors, especially patients with ARDS, are at high risk of long-term physical and mental disabilities, and an interdisciplinary approach is essential to recovery from a critical illness.

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